Friday, August 31, 2012

6. Home Sheep Home 2: Lost in London

Home Sheep Home 2: Lost in London - Play Free Online Games at




Home Sheep Home 2: Lost in London

Description No one can pull the wool over these sheep's eyes!
How to Play Home Sheep Home 2: Lost in London Shaun the Sheep and his wooly friends want to go home, and they need your help in their adventure to get there. Your goal is to get all of the sheep through each level. First select the sheep, then use the arrow keys to move it. Stack sheep to get up high. Nothing can stand between these sheep and home sweet home!

Arrows = Move Sheep
1-3 = Select Sheep

Game Category on your cell!


superbowl recipes super bowl kick off chili recipes carlos condit diaz vs condit super bowl 2012 kickoff time football score

Coach, school system quiet about Ferguson?s status

by Jeremy Stewart, Staff Writer Rn T.Com

Janier Ferguson?s future on Coosa High School?s football team could be in jeopardy following his arrest Tuesday on drug charges.

The 18-year-old senior running back was charged with two counts of felony possession of marijuana with intent to distribute, two counts of misdemeanor possession of marijuana of less than an ounce and one count of felony sale of marijuana.

Ferguson was released from the Floyd County Jail on Wed?nes?day afternoon on $15,000 bond.

Coosa High School Principal Trevor Hubbard said he had no comment concerning the situation, and Tim Hensley, assistant to the superintendent of Floyd County Schools, said that he could not talk about particular students but referred to the Extracurricular Code of Conduct for Floyd County Schools.

The code explains that any students arrested for, or charged with, a felony will be automatically suspended from extracurricular activities and remain so ?until the matter is resolved in favor of the student.?

?Participating in extracurricular activities is a privilege students have at all of our schools,? Hensley said.

All Floyd County Schools student-athletes and their parent or guardian must sign the code of conduct to show that they have read and understand the rules.

Hensley said that the school cannot discipline a student who has been arrested until they return to classes. The proper procedure will then be followed according to the legal situation.

In Ferguson?s case, he allegedly sold marijuana to a cooperating witness on Aug. 14 and Aug. 22 along Turner McCall Boulevard.

The Extracurricular Code of Conduct for Floyd County Schools notes that the use, possession and distribution of illegal drugs is an infraction that results in the maximum penalty, which for a first offense is suspension for all of the current season or school year for athletics or performing groups.

When asked twice whether Ferguson would still be on the football team if and when he returned to school, Coosa head football coach Chad Perry declined to comment.

He said that his staff and players had turned their attention to Friday night?s season-opening contest against Gordon Central in Calhoun.

?We?ve got mostly a new squad on the field this year, and it will be interesting to see how the guys respond when the lights come on and the games start counting,? Perry said.

The 2011 Rome News-Tribune Co-Player of the Year, Ferguson had started practicing with the Coosa team just last week after completing his academic eligibility requirements following a change in residency during the summer.

He had played the previous season at Pepperell High School, where he rushed for 2,063 yards on 300 carries and scored 26 touchdowns.

Extracurricular Code of Conduct for Floyd County Schools

Recent story on Janier



jason wu the patriot nick diaz vs carlos condit hall of fame occupy dc ufc 143 fight card my fair lady

Prep Field Hockey: Eagles savor victory over district rival - The ...


Though Colonial Forge?s field hockey team is flush with new faces this fall, the returners who did play last year remember.

Three losses to rival Stafford in 2011. The first on penalty strokes, after the Indians had tied the game with seconds to spare. Twice in overtime, including a 3?2 defeat in the Northwest Region semifinals, when a win would have sent the Eagles to the school?s first-ever state tournament berth.

Those girls remembered, and enjoyed Thursday?s 1?0 Commonwealth District win a little extra.
Senior Ashley Vastano?one of Colonial Forge?s returners this season?scored 10 minutes into the game and the Eagles (3?1) exacted a small bit of revenge against the Indians (1?1).

Colonial Forge sophomore goalie Olivia Strobl stopped a pair of penalty strokes and the Eagles fended off Stafford?s 19?1 advantage in second-half corners while clinging to that one-goal advantage.

?We were just so ready for this game,? said senior Tenay Greene. ?We were so close last year, and I think that just carried over this year. We wanted this so bad.?

Greene, who moved from a defensive wing last year to the middle of the defense this season, was at the center of the action during Stafford?s second-half flurry.

The Indians? 19 corners after the break included a stretch of 13 over a 10-minute period that the Eagles resisted.

?I guess just the frustration kept us focused,? Greene said. ?We kept at it. I?m really proud of all [my teammates].?

Three saves stood out in particular for Strobl.

A corner with 17 minutes, eight seconds to play led to a laser the sophomore had to fend off with her blocker pad.

Another corner three minutes later resulted in three Stafford shots that she blocked, and a fourth that she couldn?t. A defender committed a foul on the ball as it rolled to the cage, resulting in a penalty stroke.

Strobl stood strong.

Stafford?s Lindsey Lysher hit a good ball on the stroke, but Strobl was able to slide just to her left and swat the ball away with her blocker.

And with 8:50 to play, the Indians were awarded another penalty stroke when a shot to finish a breakaway was stopped illegally.

But this time the stroke was not well hit, and Strobl had an easy dive to her right to keep the ball from going in.

?Our goalie was so good today,? Vastano said. ?She really stepped up and did well.?

Eagles coach Julie Spinelli had seen this before. The Indians had a 27?4 advantage in corners in last year?s Northwest Region playoff game?including a run of 15 straight that ended with a late game-tying goal.

Stafford had 25 corners yesterday, to just five for the Eagles.

?Stafford?s good. They?re going to convert on opportunities they have,? Spinelli said. ?So, that was always in the back of my mind. But our girls stayed strong.?

After the game, the Eagles were tired. Frustrated.

And ecstatic for having finally broken through against Stafford.

?At the beginning we told our girls they?d have to play hard the entire 60 minutes,? Spinelli said, ?and they did just that. They didn?t let down.?

Justin Rice: 540/368-5045


meniscus the colony kids choice awards ncaa final four 2012 texas chainsaw massacre uk vs louisville university of kansas

Can I Claim compensation for Getting Assaulted? | Personal Injury ...

If you have been a victim of an act of crime or violence, you are entitled by law to make a claim for criminal injuries compensation.

A lot of respected private injury solicitors specialise in criminal law. If you have been a victim of crime, you are entitled by law to make a claim for criminal injuries compensation on a ?no win, no fee? basis, similarly to a private injury claim. Even so, if your claim is profitable, most solicitors will take a deduction, normally 25 per cent. Alternatively you can get in touch with the Criminal Injuries compensation Authority (CICA) straight to pursue a claim.

The CICA are a Government funded organisation, accountable for processing applications for victims looking for compensation who have suffered a physical or mental injury due to no fault of their personal.

A personal injury solicitor Nevertheless, is much more most likely to improve the worth of your claim and the general quantity of compensation that you could be entitled to.

Individual injury solicitors who specialise in criminal law, have the experience, expertise and capability to maximise the compensation you deserve. As a result, it would be much more advantageous to seek the skilled legal assistance and assistance from a personal injury firm who delivers a ?no win no fee? service.

There are a variety of varieties of injuries linked with ?assault?. The following compensation amounts are a rough manual as to how a lot compensation you could count on to get for the following:

Fractures to the face: ?1,000 ? ?5,500
Scarring: ?1,500 ? ?11,000
Loss of teeth: ?2,200 ? ?5,500
Sexual Assault: Up to ?44,000

Of course, the above compensation amounts are a guideline as to how significantly compensation you could count on to get dependant on the relevance of your injury.

To make a profitable criminal injury claim, you ought to attempt to get as a lot evidence as you possibly can in relation to the incident.

The following info will assist your solicitor to get evidence that will be filed along with your claim:

Photographs of your injuries (if visible)
Witness information (name, quantity, address)
Place Address (exactly where the incident occurred)
Police Station (the police station the incident was reported to)
Crime reference quantity (if supplied with a single)
The dates, occasions, and address of any healthcare establishments you have attended relating to your injury.
The name of the offender.

The above verify list will also assist you to help your claim for compensation.

Claimants with tiny or no evidence with regards to the incident are unlikely to have their claim accepted by a solicitor.

It is crucial to bear in mind when taking into consideration make a claim that you can give as a lot data about the accident or incident as you can.

Co-operating with your solicitor effectively will also aid to speed of the process of your claim.

Make confident when producing a claim for compensation that you decide on the appropriate solicitor for you.

A lot of firms give legal representation for criminal injuries, so be positive to study their ?recent situation studies? and client ?testimonials? to make sure you are selecting the very best firm of individual injury solicitors to deal with your situation.

PHC Law Ltd individual injury solicitors specialise in individual injury, which includes criminal injury law.

Related posts:

Tags: check it out, click here,, httppersonalinjuryclaims1-co-uk, Injury Claims, Personal Injury Claim, personal-injury-claims, this website


google augmented reality glasses wonderlic test texas tornado fantasy baseball st louis cardinals jared sullinger jaleel white

Writing on a smartphone: review of 8pen and MessagEase - Where ...

I like to write. Consequently, I'm constantly trying to optimize my writing tools. On a computer, I'm very satisfied by my Typematrix keyboard configured to use the B?po keymap, which is the French Dvorak.

An old typewriter

When typing, we use approximately 50 keys. Combined with Shift and Alt, this gives you more or less 150 characters. Some of them are dead keys, giving you even more characters but some are completely useless on a day-to-day basis. I'm writing mostly in French, which requires a lot more characters than English. How does it translate on a smartphone? I will share my experience and review the two most innovative solutions I've found: MessagEase and 8pen.

First of all, I consider that a smartphone or a tablet has nothing to do with a typewriter. As such, it's completely silly to try to mimic a solution that was designed to work around hardware limitations. Each time I see a virtual QWERTY non-aligned keyboard on a tablet, I sigh.

No virtual keyboard nor voice recognition.

Solutions like Swype or Swiftkey are not acceptable to me. They are merely hacks but they don't address the core issue: we have nothing to do with a virtual physical keyboard on a small touchscreen device. Their only advantage is to look familiar to those who don't like change.

I'm also completely opposed to any kind of dictionary completion/guess. Even if it is very good. Firstly because I find it very disturbing when you type quickly, secondly because I usually know what I want to write. I want to be able to mix languages in one sentence, to create word, to use my own abbreviations. I've also heard that it may change the way you write. In the end, you adapt your message and your vocabulary because of an algorithm. I reject any kind of automatism, including auto-capitalization. Even a 1% failure of automatisms is enough to break you thinking flow.

My first reflex was, of course, to install B?po for Android, using AnySoftKeyboard. But I quickly realized that it was not better that any other solution. B?po is designed for an hardware ten fingered typing. Worst: I only know B?po with my muscular memory. Which means that, on my smartphone, I was completely lost and confused, looking for each letter separately.

Voice recognition is not interesting for me. I'm a writer, not a speaker, I write faster than I?speak. And I don't speak about handwriting recognition, which is slow, cumbersome, uncomfortable on the glass screen and requires you to correct your input every three letters.


With 8 pen, you have a circle with 4 quadrants. With your finger or your stylus, you will draw loops starting and ending in the central dot. The letter is defined by the starting quadrant, the loop direction and the ending quadrant This gives you 4x2x4 = 32 keys.

8pen in action

If the overall idea looks interesting, we immediately see the limit of the model, especially in French (the French language use 47 characters, not 26, punctuation excluded).

To workaround that limitation, capitals are written by doing one complete loop before completing the letter. There are also some shortcuts and gestures where you don't start from the centre. Good thing, you can programm your own shortcuts.

The learning step is quite high but you can download a very funny and addictive game to get started with 8pen. It does really feel like a game and not like a learning tool, with nice graphics and music. When playing, the feeling of writing a word with one gesture is really great. Too bad, the game is only available with the English version.

8pen game

As soon as you leave the game, reality becomes a lot more painful. The hand got tired very quickly of all the circles. Some very common characters are very hard to write and capitals are a nightmare. After one complete loop, you are completely lost and you don't know where to stop.

In French, most accented characters are very hard to reach and, worst of all, may require a long press which display a popup menu with multiple choices.

Altough a good idea, gestures are adding confusion: trying to delete a letter constantly display "5" for me, with the default config.

In the end, it doesn't work well in portrait mode and, even when being really fast, I didn't managed to get close to any virtual keyboard. Making loops is slow and cumbersome, which totally defeat the purpose of 8pen.

But the idea is interesting and, at least, it has to be investigated. Let's add that 8pen is very pretty and looks futuristic. It nicely changes its colour during the day, giving a modern feeling that I appreciate. Small details which make a difference.

Download 8pen for Android


MessagEase is a keyboard which gives you 10 huge keys to tap. On each key, you can do a letter by either pressing the key or by drawing a straight line in any direction starting from anywhere in that key. For each key, you then have one main character and 8 directions. One of the key being the space bar, it leaves you with 9x9 = 81 characters easily accessible. Not bad.

MessagEase in action

To make things even better, you can draw the capitals by doing a back and forth movement or a small loop if the letter you want to write is the main letter of the key. That makes a grand total of 162 possibilities, not all being exploited. Four other keys on the side are reserved for specific functions.

The first point, important to me, is that MessagEase is well adapted to French. With the exception of the letter "?", used in the very common "o?" (where), all letters are easily accessible and capitalizable. In order to make "?", you have to use the deadkey for the accent. Counter intuitively, deadkeys have to be typed after the letter. This is currently a big source of confusion for me but I believe that "?" should be added in French (like above the A or below the T or replacing ? and putting ? above the A). There are also some questions: why is "O" at the centre of the keyboard while "E" is a lot more frequent in French, "O" being only the 9th more used letter[1]?

Being able to type stuffs like ?, ?, ? makes it even better than a standard French Azerty keyboard! For numbers, you can either switch to numeric mode or, easier, make long presses on the keys. There are so many undiscoverable sugars that reading the help is frequently required. Better discoverability would have been appreciated.

It may sounds complicated but the basic principle is straightforward and you can start using it in a matter of minutes. There's a training game, also available in French. The game looks a bit old and is not really funny. Efficient but not addictive. Globally, MessagEase is quite ugly. It looks like it was designed for a Game Boy in the middle eighties. And like any good old software from the eighties, it is full of preferences, most of them being unclear, useless or the usual how-the-heck-am-I-supposed-to-know-whats-best-for-me.

MessagEase game

What is really impressive with MessagEase is the speed you can achieve. I do more than 35WPM in a few weeks and the world record is currently unofficially held by a MessagEase user. If you are using a stylus, the speed is so intense that it becomes noisy and could generate scratches. You can also hide the letters in order to type blindly. I'm not there yet but I should really practice because it is said to improve your speed quite a lot.

To make thing even more useful, you have very simple access to common functions: select all, copy, paste, delete word by word.

The only major annoyance I have with MessagEase is related to diagonals letter often interpreted as horizontal. Specially on the top row where "?" becomes "-" but "g" also becomes "c". That and the overall ugliness. The worst looking app of my phone is the most useful one.

Download MessagEase for Android


A new kind of devices should obviously lead to a new kind of input mechanism. Voice recognition, hand writing or virtual hardware keyboard cannot give us the comfort and the efficiency experienced people can have with touch typing on a real keyboard. A completely new concept has to be invented.

While it was an interesting concept to investigate, 8pen doesn't make the cut. Only 32 easily accessible characters makes it a dead end.

On the other hand, MessagEase shows an impressive potential. There are annoyances but nothing that cannot be fixed. It also adapts surprisingly well on different situations: one hand, stylus or two hand typing, even landscape mode (which could be improved).

If you have any doubt, don't hesitate. MessagEase is the best touchscreen keyboard out there. I recommend it to everybody looking for input efficiency on a touchscreen device. I don't see how I could get back to any other virtual keyboard but, if you have suggestions, I will be delighted to try alternatives.

Because I've spent 1? to buy 8pen in order to complete this test, don't hesitate to Flattr this article. Thanks :-)


war of the worlds rock and roll hall of fame severe weather wichita brian wilson storm chasers david blaine

Thursday, August 30, 2012

Samsung to sue Apple over LTE patents, partner with Microsoft to avoid Android lawsuits

Samsung to sue Apple over LTE patents, partner with Microsoft to avoid Android lawsuits

By Daniel Eran Dilger

Published: 02:00 PM EST (11:00 AM PST) Reeling from its scathing jury verdict, Samsung executives have promised to continue litigation with Apple over patents while also partnering with Microsoft to cut its dependency on Google's Android.

According to a report by the Korean Times, Samsung plans to not only appeal the jury's findings of its willful infringements, but also to pursue new patent litigation related to 4G LTE networks.

Abuse of patent law, not the pursuit of innovation

The paper stated that "Samsung confirmed that it will immediately sue Apple if the latter releases products using advanced long-term evolution (LTE) mobile technology," although Apple already has released New iPad models with 4G LTE connectivity, having introduced them nearly six months ago.

Suing over new standards essential patents related to LTE would only expand the trouble Samsung is facing in its efforts to defend its willful infringement of Apple's utility patents, and most critically its overt infringement of Apple's design patents and its registered trade dress, by leveraging standards patents already committed to Fair, Reasonable and Nondiscriminatory (FRAND) licensing terms.

Samsung controls less than an eight of the patents related to LTE, with Nokia, Qualcomm and Ericsson accounting for 43 percent. However, Samsung has pursued the same strategy as Google's Motorola subsidiary in arguing that it only takes "one bullet to kill," or that just a few standards essential patents can be use to successfully monopolize entire markets. Both companies are under investigation in the U.S. and E.U. for allegedly abusing patent law with regard to FRAND-committed patents.

The same jury that found Samsung in infringement threw out all of Samsung's patent claims against Apple, including those related to the 3G specification. Apple argued that it does not infringe upon the patents, but also that Samsung misled standards bodies by hiding patents covering the technology it submitted for inclusion in those standards.

Proper disclosure of the patents would have clarified the situation, as patents contributed to industry standard specifications such as MPEG, WiFi, 3G and LTE are required to be broadly licensed under FRAND terms. Apple itself has contributed to such industry standards as H.264 and HTML5, in prominent cases giving up its patent rights entirely to help forge standards (as was the case with MPEG 4's QuickTime container format and HTML5's Canvas features, both of which are now free, not just FRAND).

Despite its threats to ramp up litigation, Samsung has also complained in a letter to its employees that a company can't win over customers and continuously grow "when its primary means to competition has been the outright abuse of patent law, not the pursuit of innovation."

From a "crisis of design" to just a "crisis"

Samsung's attempts to escape from what its internal documents described as a "crisis of design" were portrayed by Apple in the trial as being an intense, three month effort to closely copy the iPhone, a tactic Apple's attorney's said was approved by the company's top executives.

The Korean Times quoted Kim Sang-jo, a professor of economics at Hansung University, as noting that "the leadership of Samsung Chairman Lee Kun-hee is being put on the test as Samsung is in crisis, at least for the time being."

It cited a Samsung executive as saying "the chairman calmed down and slightly closed his eyes after he was briefed [on the verdict]. But he didn?t say anything further."

The article also cited unnamed officials as saying that Samsung is "closely partnering with Microsoft to cut its dependency on Google Android," while at the same time stating that "Samsung has been in talks with major U.S. carriers to jointly develop modified design technology. This will be effective, though we can?t unveil more details for the time being."

Samsung previously partnered with Microsoft to use Windows Mobile, the platform powering its popular line of BlackJack phones that were selling when the iPhone debuted. Since the iPhone, however, Samsung has largely sidelined its support for Microsoft's mobile platforms to focus on Android.

Samsung currently sells smartphones running Android 2.x Froyo and Gingerbread, Android 3.x and 4.x, as well models running its own Bada platform. It recently introduced new Windows Phone 8 phones and tablets running Windows 8.


bigfoot sandra dee twilight zone december 21 2012 mayan calendar nfl playoff picture nfl playoff picture

Common Scams Committed by Car Rental ... - Travel and Leisure

There are a lot of annoying things to deal with when it comes to renting a car. You are pressured into purchasing upgrades and insurance, and sometimes the car you reserved is ?no longer available.? Many people feel like they would be better off taking a cab. Before you rent your next car, look out for these common car rental company scams:

Cheap Upfront Prices

Many companies allow you to reserve a car that is 40 dollars (or more) cheaper than competing companies. This is typically because on the day you show up, that car will no longer be available. To get a car, you will need to pay for an expensive upgrade or leave without a vehicle. Assuming you get a car, you will also have taxes and other fees added on in addition to the initial cost of the car. These fees typically raise the price 25% on average.

Extra Insurance

Most people renting a car will be covered by their current insurance policy. However, many people are still pressured by car rental companies to purchase extra insurance. This is the main way car rental companies raise the price of their rentals. Some companies will ask you to pay a deposit, or refuse to rent to you if you do not purchase the insurance. However, in most states, this is illegal ? extra insurance is entirely optional.

Damage Charges

Some companies rent out vehicles that are not in the greatest condition. When you bring it back, they will charge you for damage they claim you caused, when in reality it was already there. After you?ve accepted the car and signed that it was in good condition, it is hard to fight these charges. It is important to make note of any damage prior to taking the vehicle off the lot.

Toll Fees

Some states no longer use tollbooths, and instead automatically mail you (or the rental company) a bill after you drive through a sensor. Car rental companies may take advantage of this and charge you well above what the actual toll was.

Gas Fill-Up

If you fail to return your rental car with a full tank of gas, you may be charged for the fill-up, plus an extra surcharge. Another scam is the ?fuel package? which allows you to purchase gas from the rental company; at a much higher price then you could down the street.

This entry was posted on August 29, 2012, 3:41 pm and is filed under Travel & Leisure. You can follow any responses to this entry through RSS 2.0. Both comments and pings are currently closed.


amanda bynes arrested f 18 jet crash in virginia beach john tortorella nicki minaj beez in the trap video food network good friday

Moving toward regeneration

ScienceDaily (Aug. 30, 2012) ? The skin, the blood, and the lining of the gut -- adult stem cells replenish them daily. But stem cells really show off their healing powers in planarians, humble flatworms fabled for their ability to rebuild any missing body part. Just how adult stem cells build the right tissues at the right times and places has remained largely unanswered.

Now, in a study published in an upcoming issue of Development, researchers at the Stowers Institute for Medical Research describe a novel system that allowed them to track stem cells in the flatworm Schmidtea mediterranea. The team found that the worms' stem cells, known as neoblasts, march out, multiply, and start rebuilding tissues lost to amputation.

"We were able to demonstrate that fully potent stem cells can mobilize when tissues undergo structural damage," says Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Stowers Investigator Alejandro S?nchez Alvarado, Ph.D., who led the study. "And these processes are probably happening to both you and me as we speak, but are very difficult to visualize in organisms like us."

Stem cells hold the potential to provide an unlimited source of specialized cells for regenerative therapy of a wide variety of diseases but delivering human stem cell therapies to the right location in the body remains a major challenge. The ability to follow individual neoblasts opens the door to uncovering the molecular cues that help planarian stem cells navigate to the site of injury and ultimately may allow scientists to provide therapeutic stem cells with guideposts to their correct destination.

"Human counterparts exist for most of the genes that we have found to regulate the activities of planarian stem cells," says S?nchez Alvarado. "But human beings have these confounding levels of complexity. Planarians are much simpler making them ideal model systems to study regeneration."

Scientists had first hypothesized in the late 1800s that planarian stem cells, which normally gather near the worms' midlines, can travel toward wounds. The past century produced evidence both for and against the idea. S?nchez Alvarado, armed with modern tools, decided to revisit the question.

For the new study, first author Otto C. Guedelhoefer, IV, Ph.D., a former graduate student in S?nchez Alvarado's lab, exposed S. mediterranea to radiation, which killed the worms' neoblasts while leaving other types of cells unharmed. The irradiated worms would wither and die within weeks unless Guedelhoefer transplanted some stem cells from another worm. The graft's stem cells sensed the presence of a wound -- the transplant site -- migrated out of the graft, reproduced and rescued their host. Unlike adult stem cells in humans and other mammals, planarian stem cells remain pluripotent in fully mature animals and remain so even as they migrate.

But when Guedelhoefer irradiated only a part of the worm's body, the surviving stem cells could not sense the injury and did not mobilize to fix the damage, which showed that the stem cells normally stay in place. Only when a fair amount of irradiated tissue died did the stem cells migrate to the injured site and start to rebuild. Next, Guedelhoefer irradiated a worm's body part and cut it with a blade. The surviving stem cells arrived at the scene within days.

To perform the experiments, Guedelhoefer adapted worm surgery and x-ray methods created sixty to ninety years ago. "Going back to the old literature was essential and saved me tons of time," says Guedelhoefer, currently a postdoctoral fellow at the University of California, Santa Barbara. He was able to reproduce and quantify results obtained in 1949 by F. Dubois, a French scientist, who first developed the techniques for partially irradiating planarians with x-rays.

But Guedelhoefer went further. He pinpointed the locations of stem cells and studied how far they dispersed using RNA whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH), specifically adapted to planarians in S?nchez Alvarado's lab. Using WISH, he observed both original stem cells and their progeny by tagging specific pieces of mRNA . The technique allowed him to determine that pluripotent stem cells can travel and produce different types of progeny at the same time.

"In other systems, most migrating stem cell progeny are not pluripotent," says Guedelhoefer. "For the most part, blood stem cells in humans stay in the bone marrow but their progeny leave and turn into a few other cell types." But in planarians, it looks like those two things are completely separate. Stem cells can move and maintain the full potential to turn into other types of cells."

Next, S?nchez Alvarado looks forward to implementing genetic screens and transplantation experiments to disrupt or enhance the cellular behaviors the team observed, to figure out the "rules of engagement" for stem cell migration, he says.

"Why can some animals regenerate whole body parts but you and I are not good at it?" says S?nchez Alvarado. "Can we write an extra rule or erase one? Is it possible, for instance, to get rid of cancer while gaining regenerative properties? These are questions we'd love to have answers to."

The Stowers Institute for Medical Research, a National Institutes of Health Training Grant (5T32 HD0791), a National Institutes of Health Grant (GM057260), and Howard Hughes Medical Institute provided funding for this work.

Share this story on Facebook, Twitter, and Google:

Other social bookmarking and sharing tools:

Story Source:

The above story is reprinted from materials provided by Stowers Institute for Medical Research, via Newswise.

Note: Materials may be edited for content and length. For further information, please contact the source cited above.

Journal Reference:

  1. O. C. Guedelhoefer, A. S. Alvarado. Amputation induces stem cell mobilization to sites of injury during planarian regeneration. Development, 2012; DOI: 10.1242/dev.082099

Note: If no author is given, the source is cited instead.

Disclaimer: This article is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Views expressed here do not necessarily reflect those of ScienceDaily or its staff.


paris jackson Katherine Jackson Olympics Opening Ceremony Time aapl US weekly amelia earhart Sally Ride

NASA's IceBridge seeking new view of changing sea ice

ScienceDaily (Aug. 28, 2012) ? This year scientists working on NASA's Operation IceBridge, a multi-year airborne science mission to study changing ice conditions at both poles, debuted a new data product with the potential to improve Arctic sea ice forecasts.

Using new data processing techniques, IceBridge scientists were able to release an experimental quick look product before the end of the 2012 Arctic campaign. The main challenge faced when producing data for seasonal forecasts is the time needed to crunch the numbers, something that has in the past taken IceBridge scientists more than six months to do after the data was collected in the spring. This is too late to use for Arctic sea ice forecasts of the annual seasonal minimum, which takes place in September.

The new product could potentially be used in seasonal sea ice forecasts in the future. "The community is excited about it," said IceBridge science team co-lead Jackie Richter-Menge of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research Laboratory, Hanover, N.H. "We're hoping to build on this season's momentum and interest."

Scientists have been keeping an eye on Arctic sea ice in recent years because it is changing and they want to understand what those changes might mean. Arctic sea ice grows and recedes in a seasonal pattern, with a maximum coverage in March and a minimum in September. These high and low points vary from year to year, but there is a clear trend toward smaller minimums that mean more open water in the Arctic each summer and fall. This decrease in ice is already affecting ocean and terrestrial life in the Arctic, accelerating warming in the region and leading to economic and social changes.

"Sea ice is a sensitive indicator of a changing climate," said NASA researcher Nathan Kurtz at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. It can also act as a feedback to warming in the Arctic. Because ice is much lighter in color than ocean water it has a higher albedo, meaning it reflects more sunlight than water. "A loss of sea ice can cause the Earth as a whole to warm," Kurtz said. The loss of sea ice has also been linked to shifts in weather patterns and distribution of nutrients in the ocean.

Getting the Whole Picture

Sea ice modulates a complex interaction between two systems -- the ocean and the atmosphere -- and is affected by a number of factors. Surface temperature is the one that most readily comes to mind. Warming air and ocean temperatures melt the ice over time. But ice thickness and the amount of snow that accumulates on it are important in controlling the amount of growth and melt. As anyone who has been to a summer barbecue knows, larger masses of ice melt slower than smaller ones. Thicker sea ice will stay around longer than thin ice.

The largest portion of sea ice is hidden under the water's surface, which makes measuring its thickness trickier than getting its extent. To find thickness, researchers rely on a variety of advanced instruments and a law of physics that goes back to ancient Greece -- the Archimedes Principle. "If you know how much ice is above the water and know its density, you can calculate the thickness," said Kurtz. "On average 80 to 90 percent of the ice is below the surface." With this knowledge, it's possible to take the ice freeboard, the amount above the water's surface, and calculate its thickness. IceBridge's Airborne Topographic Mapper, or ATM, instrument uses a laser to measure how high the ice surface is above sea level. But snow accumulation means that what ATM measures is not just ice. To address this complication, IceBridge uses one of its radar instruments to measure snow thickness, and then with simple subtraction, researchers can figure out the true ice freeboard.

It's important to factor for snow thickness because while it adds height to sea ice, it adds less mass than an equivalent thickness of ice. But snow thickness is a valuable measurement in its own right. "There's growing interest in our snow depth measurements as a stand-alone product," Richter-Menge said.

Snow affects how sea ice grows and melts by insulating it, slowing growth, and further increasing albedo as snow is even lighter colored than ice. But snow can also speed up melting. Snow melts, forming ponds of water that -- due to increased albedo -- absorb more heat than either snow or ice would. Snow also plays a role in the Arctic ecosystem. "For instance, snow needs to be a certain depth for the survival of seal pups," said Richter-Menge.

Putting It All Together

Creating a new data product calls for new processing methods and a good understanding of how data are collected. To facilitate this, Kurtz traveled to Greenland during the 2012 Arctic campaign. For about two weeks in March, Kurtz participated in survey flights on the NASA P-3B aircraft to see how instrument operators gathered sea ice data. "I asked a lot of questions," Kurtz said. "And I got a good impression for a short stay." Although it is tempting to use this data in this year's seasonal forecasts, both Kurtz and Richter-Menge caution that while they are optimistic about the new product, it still needs testing. After the upcoming sea ice minimum, researchers can compare the quick look and traditional products and test models using the quick look data against observations. "As the season goes on, we'll see how useful the quick look product is," Richter-Menge said.

Next year's Arctic campaign will see further refinement of the methods used to create the quick look product. "The key is knowing how to deal with the data," Kurtz said. He plans to return to Greenland in 2013 to work on ways to speed up processing. "I learned a lot this year," Kurtz said. "It should be easier now that I've done it once."

For more information on the Airborne Topographic Mapper and snow radar instruments, visit:

Share this story on Facebook, Twitter, and Google:

Other social bookmarking and sharing tools:

Story Source:

The above story is reprinted from materials provided by NASA.

Note: Materials may be edited for content and length. For further information, please contact the source cited above.

Note: If no author is given, the source is cited instead.

Disclaimer: Views expressed in this article do not necessarily reflect those of ScienceDaily or its staff.


j.r. martinez lance ball lance ball kansas city chiefs chiefs kc chiefs kc chiefs

Car racing games | Jesica

First the reality; Video games are credited with building up the spatial abilities of individuals. The normal kid who is the gamer is likely to be your own future brain physician, or even aerospace engineer. The second fact is this: A large amount of individuals will not have the opportunity engage in professional generating / performance driving a car cum racing. That is simple fact. Question is where does the individual who awakens to this reality as well as the kid who even now lives in such a make believe world meet? The result lies in one word- vehicle racing games.

When you are in the market for auto Racing Games, you can essentially look into purchasing a dime several products. The honor record reads something the following:

l 3D racing craze: On this game one essentially races on Three dimensional tracks in The far east. The catch is this -one should finish the arranged track within the set time limit to progress to the next track. The game retails for a price of $ 17, and has a new star rating involving 4/ 5 among game enthusiasts who have sampled this.

l Mafia driver: Within this game, the gamer basically drives for the mafia! The sport tests the players power to essentially manipulate the keys- this is thanks to the cracks and nooks in which such a driver would be expected to navigate through, if you achieve the drift (simply no pun intended).

l Portugal rally: This game takes the gamer around the world rally championship inside Portugal. The driver extends to get behind the wheels of a Subaru WRX. The creativities and turns on the track make it extremely hard to remain on track however this is the essence in the battle between person and machine. The sport has been given a 4/5 star rating through those who have sampled it.

l Police Pursuit: No car racing video game would be complete without a good old-fashioned police quest. Such a pursuit could be played out in the overall game police pursuit. Simply no, you do not get to play the bad guy, you rather get to play the police officer. Moreover, as police officer you get to run the unhealthy boys out of town in speeds that are neck breaking.

l Crazy truckers: The synopsis is not hard. You have an eighteen truck driver at your disposal; you need to produce packages to an arranged place, all under the volley of heavy gunfire. Belt up. This game has brought a star score of 4/5.

These are but a majority of of the games that you can taste when you log on to this website. There are over Hundred car racing games at your disposal that cam be saved from as little as Money 17. If you are searching for a car game, how?s that for one site that you need to check out for all your vehicle racing needs.

For more information about Dress up games please visit the website.


thomas kinkade paintings easter bunny navy jet crash virginia beach isiah thomas passover easter recipes live free or die hard

Aromatherapy Astrological Frequencies Training Courses, Health ...

Fitness fear for Addeen after break

KUALA LUMPUR: Top national squash junior Mohd Addeen Idrakie is still feeling the effects of a long Hari Raya break but views the TC National Championships as the perfect platform to get back into shape.

CHELSEA: St. Louis Center starts 'Fitness for Life' with help from grants

With the help of two grants, residents at the St. Louis Center in Chelsea, a home for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities, now have a functional fitness training program.

Reading FC fitness takes inspiration from New York Knicks

Reading FC fitness coach Karl Halabi reveals how the New York Knicks have helped shaped training at Madejski Stadium.

Lifesaver Paul turns fitness focus on himself

FEW people could be more committed to losing weight than Paul Newnes.

Devlin Tops In Spitfires Training Camp Fitness Testing

Defenceman Brandon Devlin finished tops overall among 47 Spitfires returnees, prospects and training camp hopefuls in fitness testing on Day One of 2012 Training Camp at the WFCU Centre on Monday.

Top 3 health events: training for runners, nature walk, free fitness classes


Bluetooth SIG Adopts Key Profiles for Sports and Fitness Market

The Bluetooth Special Interest Group today finalized standards that will accelerate the proliferation of Bluetooth? wireless technology sensors that measure speed and cadence for running and cycling activity.

Global Sports and Fitness Clothing Industry

NEW YORK, Aug. 27, 2012 /PRNewswire/ -- announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue: Global Sports and Fitness Clothing Industry ...

Devon Fitness Club of Berwyn, PA voted Best of the Best for Personal Training!

BERWYN, Pa., Aug. 21, 2012 /PRNewswire/ -- John McCaffrey and Lisa Hoekstra, owners of Devon Fitness Club ( ) in Berwyn, PA, received the honor of Best of the Best for their ...

One-on-one training studios take fitness personally

NEW YORK (Reuters) - Personalized fitness is no longer the domain of movie stars and world-class athletes. Studios providing one-on-one fitness are catering to clients who prefer their fitness far from the all-purpose gym crowd. "This is definitely a growing area," said Meredith Poppler of the International Health, Racquet & Sportsclub Association (IHRSA), the trade association of the fitness ...


war horse k cups best buy we bought a zoo we bought a zoo ipad accessories port charlotte florida

Wednesday, August 29, 2012

Meet your desktop's ancestors: AT&T exhumes footage of the Bell Blit (video)

AT&T exhumes footage of the Bell Blit, shows you where your desktop came from

AT&T's video archives are rich seams of juicy historical tidbits, and today's offering is a fine example. It's sharing footage of the Bell Blit, a graphic interface that Bell Labs developed after being inspired by the Xerox Alto. Originally named the Jerq, it was created by Rob Pike and Bart Locanthi to have the same usability as the Alto, but with "the processing power of a 1981 computer." Watch, as the narrator marvels at being able to use multiple windows at once, playing Asteroids while his debugging software runs in the background on that futuristic green-and-black display. The next time we get annoyed that Crysis isn't running as fast as you'd like it to, just remember how bad the geeks of yesteryear had it.

Continue reading Meet your desktop's ancestors: AT&T exhumes footage of the Bell Blit (video)

Filed under: , ,

Meet your desktop's ancestors: AT&T exhumes footage of the Bell Blit (video) originally appeared on Engadget on Wed, 29 Aug 2012 16:53:00 EDT. Please see our terms for use of feeds.

Permalink Gizmodo  |   | Email this | Comments


world financial center shabazz muhammad angela corey zimmerman charged bonobos charles manson actuary

Synchronized lasers measure how light changes matter: Effects of light at atomic scale probed by mixing x-ray and optical light waves

ScienceDaily (Aug. 29, 2012) ? Light changes matter in ways that shape our world. Photons trigger changes in proteins in the eye to enable vision; sunlight splits water into hydrogen and oxygen and creates chemicals through photosynthesis; light causes electrons to flow in the semiconductors that make up solar cells; and new devices for consumers, industry, and medicine operate with photons instead of electrons. But directly measuring how light manipulates matter on the atomic scale has never been possible, until now.

An international team of scientists led by Thornton Glover of the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) used the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory to mix a pulse of superbright x-rays with a pulse of lower frequency, "optical" light from an ordinary laser. By aiming the combined pulses at a diamond sample, the team was able to measure the optical manipulation of chemical bonds in the crystal directly, on the scale of individual atoms.

The researchers report their work in the August 30, 2012 issue of the journal Nature.

Mixing x-rays with light in x-ray diffraction

X-ray and optical wave-mixing is an x-ray diffraction technique similar to that long used in solving the structures of proteins and other biological molecules in crystalline form. But in contrast to conventional diffraction, wave mixing selectively probes how light reshapes the distribution of charge in a material. It does this by imposing a distinction between x?rays scattered from optically perturbed charge and x?rays scattered from unperturbed charge.

"You can think of the electrons orbiting atoms in a material as belonging to one of two groups," says Glover. "The 'active' electrons are the outer, loosely bound valence electrons that participate in chemical reactions and form chemical bonds. The 'spectator' electrons are the ones tightly wrapped around the nucleus at the atom's core."

Glover explains that "because the x-ray photon energy is large compared to the electron binding energy, in a typical scattering experiment all electrons scatter with comparable strength and are therefore more or less indistinguishable." The core-electron signal usually swamps the weaker valence-charge signal because there are many more core electrons than valence electrons.

"So x-rays can tell you where atoms are, but they usually can't reveal how the chemically important valence charge is distributed," Glover says. "However, when light is also present with the x-rays, it wiggles some portion of the chemically relevant valence charge. X-rays scatter from this optically driven charge, and in doing so the x-ray photon energy is changed."

Pulses of 8,000-electron-volt x-rays from the LCLS are synchronized with 1.55 electron-volt pulses from an optical laser, so that both strike the diamond sample at the same time and mix to form upconverted pulses of 8,001.55 electron volts. The detector first sees the diffracted x?ray pulse, and then, after the sample is gently "rocked," the slightly more energetic mixed pulse. The optical pulse exerts localized force on the chemical bonds among the carbon atoms.

The modified x-rays have a frequency (or energy) equal to the sum of the frequencies of both the original x?ray pulse and the overlapping optical pulse. The change to a slightly higher energy provides a distinct signature, which distinguishes wave-mixing from conventional x?ray diffraction.

"Conventional diffraction does not provide direct information on how the valence electrons respond to light, nor on the electric fields that arise in a material because of this response," says Glover. "But with x-ray and optical wave mixing, the energy-modified x-rays selectively probe a material's optically responsive valence charge."

Beyond the ability to directly probe atomic-scale details of how light initiates such changes as chemical reactions or phase transitions, sensitivity to valence charge creates new opportunities to track the evolution of chemical bonds or conduction electrons in a material -- something traditional x-ray diffraction does poorly. Different components of the valence charge can be probed by tuning the so-called optical pulse; higher-frequency pulses of extreme ultraviolet light, for example, probe a larger portion of valence charge.

Because mixing x-ray and optical light waves creates a new beam, which shows up as a slightly higher-energy peak on a graph of x?ray diffraction, the process is called "sum frequency generation." It was proposed almost half a century ago by Isaac Freund and Barry Levine of Bell Labs as a technique for probing the microscopic details of light's interactions with matter, by separating information about the position of atoms from the response of valence charge exposed to light.

But sum frequency generation requires intense x-ray sources unavailable until recently. SLAC's LCLS is just such a source. It's a free-electron laser (FEL) that can produce ultrashort pulses of high-energy "hard" x-rays millions of times brighter than synchrotron light sources, a hundred times a second.

"The breadth of the science impact of LCLS is still before us," says Jerome Hastings, a professor of photon science at the LCLS and an author of the Nature article. "What is clear is that it has the potential to extend nonlinear optics into the x-ray range as a useful tool. Wave mixing is an obvious choice, and this first experiment opens the door."

Diamonds are just the beginning

Glover's team chose diamond to demonstrate x-ray and optical wave mixing because diamond's structure and electronic properties are already well known. With this test bed, wave mixing has proved its ability to study light-matter interactions on the atomic scale and has opened new opportunities for research.

"The easiest kinds of diffraction experiments are with crystals, and there's lots to learn," Glover says. "For example, light can be used to alter the magnetic order in advanced materials, yet it's often unclear just what the light does, on the microscopic scale, to initiate these changes."

Looking farther ahead, Glover imagines experiments that observe the dynamic evolution of a complex system as it evolves from the moment of initial excitation by light. Photosynthesis is a prime example, in which the energy of sunlight is transferred through a network of light-harvesting proteins into chemical reaction centers with almost no loss.

"Berkeley Lab's Graham Fleming has shown that this virtually instantaneous energy transfer is intrinsically quantum mechanical," Glover says. "Quantum entanglement plays an important role, as an excited electron simultaneously samples many spatially separated sites, probing to find the most efficient energy-transfer pathway. It would be great if we could use x-ray and optical wave mixing to make real-space images of this process as it's happening, to learn more about the quantum aspects of the energy transfer."

Such experiments will require high pulse-repetition rates that free electron lasers have not yet achieved. Synchrotron light sources like Berkeley Lab's Advanced Light Source, although not as bright as FELs, have inherently high repetition rates and, says Glover, "may play a role in helping us assess the technical adjustments needed for high repetition-rate experiments."

Light sources with repetition rates up to a million pulses per second may someday be able to do the job. Glover says, "FELs of the future will combine high-peak brightness with high repetition rate, and this combination will open new opportunities for examining the interactions of light and matter on the atomic scale."

Share this story on Facebook, Twitter, and Google:

Other social bookmarking and sharing tools:

Story Source:

The above story is reprinted from materials provided by DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

Note: Materials may be edited for content and length. For further information, please contact the source cited above.

Journal Reference:

  1. T. E. Glover, D. M. Fritz, M. Cammarata, T. K. Allison, Sinisa Coh, J. M. Feldkamp, H. Lemke, D. Zhu, Y. Feng, R. N. Coffee, M. Fuchs, S. Ghimire, J. Chen, S. Shwartz, D. A. Reis, S. E. Harris, J. B. Hastings. X-ray and optical wave mixing. Nature, 2012; 488 (7413): 603 DOI: 10.1038/nature11340

Note: If no author is given, the source is cited instead.

Disclaimer: Views expressed in this article do not necessarily reflect those of ScienceDaily or its staff.


troy tulowitzki katie couric good morning america the rock vs john cena acm awards 2012 january jones ncaa final game miranda lambert

AMD FX-4130 delivers 3.8GHz quad-core on a budget, A-Series chips get even cheaper

AMD FX4130 delivers 38GHz quadcore on a budget, Aseries chips get even cheaperIf you're building a starter desktop to get ready for school, you'll be glad to know that AMD is squeaking just a little more value for the dollar out of its processors. The new quad-core FX-4130 takes a 200MHz hop forward from its predecessor to a 3.8GHz base speed, and ramps up to 3.9GHz if it's feeling frisky. While it's thirstier than the earlier FX-4100 at 125W of maximum power draw, the unlocked chip's $112 retail cost is a potential sweet spot for those tailoring a system to a strict price. Anyone willing to trade overclocking support for yet more of a savings will be glad to know that AMD has been slashing the prices of its Fusion-based A-Series chips at the same time: the across-the-board cuts bring even the 2.9GHz A8-3850 down to $91. No breaks exist here for the performance crowd, alas, but AMD's new proposition might be just the excuse needed to build that budget Windows 8 PC.

Filed under:

AMD FX-4130 delivers 3.8GHz quad-core on a budget, A-Series chips get even cheaper originally appeared on Engadget on Tue, 28 Aug 2012 14:21:00 EDT. Please see our terms for use of feeds.

Permalink   |  sourceAMD (FX), (A-Series)  | Email this | Comments


lisa lampanelli bronx zoo memphis grizzlies celebrity apprentice grizzlies bronx zoo crash april 30

Apple v. Samsung verdict fallout: Google shrugged, Samsung is scrambling

While Google (GOOG) obviously didn?t like seeing its top Android manufacturer go down in the $1 billion Apple (AAPL) v. Samsung (005930) patent verdict, the company for now doesn?t appear to be all that worried about the verdict?s implications for the Android operating system as a whole. In particular, Google noted that most of the patents the jury found Samsung guilty of infringing upon ?don?t relate to the core Android operating system? and were also ?being re-examined by the US Patent Office.?

Kara Swisher of AllThingsD?sees a little bit of panic in Google?s statement, however, as she thinks the company is scared to death that Apple will go after it directly if the U.S. Patent Office upholds the jury?s findings. At the same time, it should be noted that the Android-based Sony (SNE) Xperia?arc was one device specifically singled out by Apple?s attorneys as a device that didn?t knock off the iPhone, so it?s doubtful that Apple will be able to nail every Android device in the same way it nailed Samsung?s Android handsets.

Speaking of Samsung, it seems that executives from the Korean electronics manufacturer aren?t nearly as sanguine about their future prospects as Google is. The Korea Times?reports that one unnamed Samsung executive has described the verdict as the ?absolutely the worst scenario for us.?

Samsung has posted an internal memo that takes swipes at Apple, however, accusing the company of ?abusing? the patent system to shut down competitors and touting its own efforts as ?the pursuit of innovation.? The memo also warns Apple that it will not win ?the hearts and minds of consumers and achieved continuous growth? if it continues to sue its competitors. Here it is in its entirety:

We initially proposed to negotiate with Apple instead of going to court, as they had been one of our most important customers. However, Apple pressed on with a lawsuit, and we have had little choice but to counter-sue, so that we can protect our company.

Certainly, we are very disappointed by the verdict at the US District Court for the Northern District of California (NDCA), and it is regrettable that the verdict has caused concern amongst our employees, as well as our loyal customers.

However, the judge?s final ruling remains, along with a number of other procedures. We will continue to do our utmost until our arguments have been accepted.

The NDCA verdict starkly contrasts decisions made by courts in a number of other countries, such as the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Germany, and Korea, which have previously ruled that we did not copy Apple?s designs. These courts also recognized our arguments concerning our standards patents.

History has shown there has yet to be a company that has won the hearts and minds of consumers and achieved continuous growth, when its primary means to competition has been the outright abuse of patent law, not the pursuit of innovation.

We trust that the consumers and the market will side with those who prioritize innovation over litigation, and we will prove this beyond doubt.

Read?[AllThingsD] Read [Korea Times]

Get more from Follow us on Twitter, Facebook


frankincense cloudy with a chance of meatballs the hobbit movie hanukkah gpa calculator menorah chanukah

Pretend play may not be as crucial to child development as believed, new study shows

ScienceDaily (Aug. 28, 2012) ? Pretend play can be fun for preschool children, but a new University of Virginia study, published in the current online edition of the journal Psychological Bulletin, finds that it is not as crucial to a child's development as currently believed. Pretend play is any play a child engages in, alone, with playmates, or with adults, that involves uses of the imagination to create a fantasy world or situation, such as making toy cars go "vrrooooom" or making dolls talk.

Based on a number of key studies over four decades, pretend play is widely considered by psychologists -- and teachers and parents -- to be a vital contributor to the healthy development of children's intellect.

However, the new U.Va. study -- a thorough review of more than 150 studies -- looked for clearly delineated contributions of pretend play to children's mental development, and found little or no correlation.

Much of the previously presented "evidence" for the vitality of pretend play to development is derived from flawed methodology, according to Angeline Lillard, the new study's lead author and a U.Va. professor of psychology in the College of Arts & Sciences. She said testers might have been biased by knowledge that they were testing children who had engaged in adult-directed pretend play prior to testing.

"We found no good evidence that pretend play contributes to creativity, intelligence or problem-solving," Lillard said. "However, we did find evidence that it just might be a factor contributing to language, storytelling, social development and self-regulation."

She said it is often difficult for psychologists to separate whether children who engage in pretend play are already creative and imaginative, or if the pretend play, often encouraged by parents or teachers, actually promotes development.

"When you look at the research that has been done to test that, it comes up really short," Lillard said. "It may be that we've been testing the wrong things; and it may well be that when a future experiment is really well done we may find something that pretend play does for development, but at this point these claims are all overheated. This is our conclusion from having really carefully read the studies."

Lillard emphasized that various elements often present during pretend play -- freedom to make choices and pursue one's own interests, negotiation with peers and physical interaction with real objects -- are valuable, especially with appropriate levels of adult guidance.

These conditions exist both in pretend play and in other playful preschool activities that encourage children to discover their own interests and talents, such as the method used in Montessori schools.

Pretend play is also important diagnostically for children between 18 months and 2 years old, Lillard said. A complete absence of pretend play among children of that narrow age range could indicate autism, and suggests that such children be evaluated for other signs of the neurological disorder.

A growing problem, she said, is a trend in schools toward intensively preparing children for tests -- often supplanting organized and informal playtime, leading to a debate over whether early childhood curricula should include materials and time for pretend play.

"Playtime in school is important," Lillard said. "We found evidence that -- when a school day consists mostly of sitting at desks listening to teachers -- recess restores attention and that physical exercise improves learning."

Regarding pretend play, she said, "If adults enjoy doing it with children, it provides a happy context for positive adult-child interaction, a very important contributor to children's healthy development."

Stephen Hinshaw, editor of Psychological Bulletin and a professor of psychology at the University of California at Berkeley, said, "The article by Lillard and colleagues is a game-changer -- a paragon of carefully-reasoned evidence that will challenge the play-based domination of the early-childhood field for years to come."

Lillard's graduate student co-authors are Rebecca Dore, Emily Hopkins, Matthew Lerner, Carrie Palmquist and Eric Smith.

Share this story on Facebook, Twitter, and Google:

Other social bookmarking and sharing tools:

Story Source:

The above story is reprinted from materials provided by University of Virginia. The original article was written by Fariss Samarrai.

Note: Materials may be edited for content and length. For further information, please contact the source cited above.

Journal Reference:

  1. Angeline S. Lillard, Matthew D. Lerner, Emily J. Hopkins, Rebecca A. Dore, Eric D. Smith, Carolyn M. Palmquist. The Impact of Pretend Play on Children's Development: A Review of the Evidence.. Psychological Bulletin, 2012; DOI: 10.1037/a0029321

Note: If no author is given, the source is cited instead.

Disclaimer: This article is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Views expressed here do not necessarily reflect those of ScienceDaily or its staff.


whitney houston funeral live pat buchanan slither slither naacp glen campbell jerusalem artichoke

Tinnitus Does Not Need To Control Your Life

Ringing in ears is actually a troublesome problem encountered by many individuals nowadays. Tinnitus signs consist of hearing an audio which is often ringing, whooshing or maybe a diverse seem completely. Should you suffer from this problem, check out this article. You may make a significant distinction inside your ringing in ears, by using the effective techniques under.

Pressure can worsen and aggravate ringing in ears, so learn to loosen up. Attempt to avoid exposing you to ultimately difficult circumstances, and learn powerful coping approaches to deal with the pressure in your lifetime. You can also use relaxation to general decrease the stress levels within your daily life.

If you presently expertise ringing in ears, you might discover no less than some comfort by reducing your sodium absorption downward. Sodium restricts the the flow of blood to your ears, and it will trigger or make more serious the symptoms of tinnitus. Apart from family table salt, stay away from salty chips, crackers, canned food items, along with other substantial-sodium items. Thankfully, the Food and drug administration needs meals be labeled with the salt content material. Cautiously read through individuals labels.

Look into the chance of a hearing assist. Ringing in ears can often be relevant to hearing issues, and hearing aids could possibly be the answer. It will also enable you to hear far better within the sound generally known as ringing in the ears, in case you feel it commonly adequate to keep you from having the capacity to have conversations.

It?s good assistance that you simply know what may be producing your ringing in the ears. Look at the medicines you are taking, and after that see if any of them checklist ringing in the ears like a complication. Moreover, you will probably find a correlation involving common nutritional elements like glucose, caffeine consumption, and sodium. Avoid using one particular at one time for a few days each to see if there is any development.

When you achieve some alleviation from the tinnitus, it?s time to evaluate which caused it in the first place. Perhaps you can keep in mind a specific incident preceding these signs and symptoms. Comprehending why your ringing in ears has manifested, is key to many efficiently dealing with it. Appearance under each stone while searching for your solution.

As previously mentioned, often ringing in the ears is looked at as something that you need to cope with till it runs its program. In case you are available to new concepts, probably striving some new stuff, it is possible to lessen and even eliminate ringing in the ears. Use these ideas to make your daily life much easier, and send tinnitus packing completely.

read blog post


the raven zerg rush david wilson playstation all stars battle royale kim zolciak kim zolciak quinton coples

Japan buys stake in India infrastructure firm

Japan said Tuesday it would buy a major stake in an Indian company at the centre of a huge infrastructure building project, marking Tokyo's latest investment in the South Asian giant.

The government-linked Japan Bank for International Cooperation would purchase a 26 percent stake in the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor Development Corp. (DMIC), Japanese industry minister Yukio Edano said.

The Indian firm has been charged with building massive projects linking Delhi and Mumbai including a freight railway between the two Indian cities.

Other projects include industrial parks and power stations that are expected to be built around the rail line.

In December, Japanese Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda promised roughly $4.5 billion in financial support for the state-funded Indian firm's projects.

The stake in DMIC will cost the Japanese bank 260 million rupees ($4.7 million) with one of its executives to sit on the company's board.

The investment comes as Japan looks to boost its footprint in Asia's biggest democracy amid simmering diplomatic tensions with neighbouring China and South Korea.

However, deadly labour unrest at a plant operated by Maruti Suzuki, India's largest carmaker, which is owned by Japanese automaker Suzuki Motor.

A riot by workers last month at the Maruti vehicle factory led to the death of a manager and injury to 96 supervisors.

-- Dow Jones Newswires contributed to this report --


blake griffin pau gasol marlins park marbury v. madison 2013 lincoln mkz burger king mary j blige google project glass